Currently available therapies for essential tremor (ET) provide sufficient control only for less than a half of patients and many unmet needs exist. This is in part due to the empiric nature of existing treatment options and persisting uncertainties about the pathogenesis of ET.
Here we review the most promising new approaches to treating ET, including allosteric modulation of GABA receptors and modifications of the LINGO-1 pathway. The selection of additional thalamic and extrathalamic targets for electrode placements and the development of a closed-loop DBS system enabling automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters in response to changes in electrophysiologic brain activity are also reviewed. Tremor cancellation methods using exoskeleton and external hand-held devices are also briefly discussed.